OMZ's Ishorskiye Zavody will produce the pressure vessel for unit 2 and the pressurisers for both units. Russian Revolution, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power, leading to the creation of the Soviet Union.  Russia is recognized for its nuclear disaster expertise and for the safety of its technology. It is 2100 MWt, 864 MWe gross, 789 MWe net, with fuel burn-up of 66 GWd/t initially, increasing to 100 GWd/t. Serial production was envisaged from 2024. However, finalising the agreement was delayed pending Siemens disengaging from Areva, and in September 2011 Siemens announced that it would not proceed. Then a two-unit VVER-1200 plant was included in the Regional Energy Planning Scheme in November 2013. The first focused on a lead-cooled fast reactor such as BREST with its fuel cycle, and assumed mobilisation of all available resources on this project with a total funding of about RUR 140 billion (about $3.1 billion). For context, see also above section on Transition to Fast Reactors. Site surveys were undertaken from June 2013, and three potential sites were shortlisted. Balakovo was the best plant in 2011 with 92.5%, and again in 2014 with 85.1%. , The Russian nuclear industry employs around 200,000 people. However, only much smaller increases have so far been approved by the government, and even these have attracted wide opposition. Like the RBMK itself, it was designed by VNIPIET (All-Russia Science Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering Technology) at St Petersburg. South Africa: A broad agreement with offer of finance has been signed, but the country is open to other offers as well, for 9600 MWe capacity required. About sharing. For the BN-600 fast reactor, improved fuel means up to 560 days between refuelling. Government of the Russian Federation, order 1 August 2016, No 1634r Units 3&4 will be shut down in 2025. V-320 is the base model of what is generically VVER-1000; V-230 and V-213 are generically VVER-440; V-179 & V-187 are prototypes. The principal contractor for Novovoronezh Phase II is JSC AtomEnergoProekt (Moscow), with work starting in 2007 and some involvement of NIAEP-ASE. Arktika was launched in June 2016 and Sibr in September 2017. The company sees its strength as its ability to make an integrated offer for its nuclear power plants, offering not only turnkey construction and fuel, but also training, services, infrastructure development, legal and regulatory structures, etc. In 2006 Rosatom announced a target of nuclear providing 23% of electricity by 2020 and 25% by 2030, but 2007 and 2009 plans approved by the government scaled this back significantly (see Building nuclear capacity below). By 2006 the government's resolve to develop nuclear power had firmed and there were projections of adding 2-3 GWe per year to 2030 in Russia as well as exporting plants to meet world demand for some 300 GWe of new nuclear capacity in that timeframe. After many years of promoting the idea, in 2006 Rosatom approved construction of a nuclear power plant on a barge (floating power module, FPM) to supply power and heat to isolated coastal towns. The BN-800 reactor at Beloyarsk has operated since 2014, essentially as a demonstration unit for fuel and design features for the BN-1200, which is now deferred. VVER-440s still use a 12-month cycle. It is claimed to require only 130-135 tonnes of natural uranium (compared with typical 190 tU now) per gigawatt year. The reactor pressure vessels of some older reactors have undergone thermal annealing to reduce acquired brittleness. The smelter would require about one third of the output from 4 GWe, and electricity exports to China and North and South Korea are envisaged. Turkey is a rising one, and the West's "golden days" in the region are long gone, according to Italy's former military chief. A design known as the Volnolom FNPP consists of a pair of reactors (12 MWe in total) mounted on a 97-metre, 8700 tonne barge plus a second barge for reverse osmosis desalination (over 40,000 m3/day of potable water). Second unit construction was planned over 2013-18, with 48 months to first power and full operation in April 2018. Project approval was confirmed by government decree in September 2009, following initial approval in mid-2008 as an amendment to the federal target program (FTP) of 2007. Viktor Merkulov, Analysis of advanced nuclear technologies applicable in the Russian Arctic, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 180, conference 1, 012020 (August 2018) Two demonstration units are proposed at Zheleznogorsk for the Mining & Chemical Combine (MCC), costing some $2 billion. In April 2015 Rosenergoatom said that construction decision would be delayed to at least 2020, as it wanted to improve the fuel and review the economic viability of the project. A decision about proceeding with the BN-1200 was then put on hold until 2022. O. Saraev, paper at WNA mid-term meeting in Moscow, May 2003 Russian experience with nuclear powered Arctic ships totals about 360 reactor-years i 2019. The overall cost was less than RUR 3 billion ($60.5 million), according to Rosenergoatom. This is SHELF, a 6 MWe integral PWR. The units are EGP-6 light water graphite-moderated reactors. The Russian language has always been Azerbaijan’s principal channel of engagement with Western culture, and it retained its importance after independence. The interim government was toppled, the Soviets seized power, and Russia later terminated the Triple Entente military alliance with France and Britain. In May 2014 Rosenergoatom was completing comparative assessment of VVER-600 from Gidropress and VBER-600 from OKBM designs. Rusatom Overseas expects two export Russian reactors constructed on a build-own-operate (BOO) basis to be operating soon after 2020 and 24 by 2030. The reactor plant mass is 2200 tonnes for two. The FTP is based on VVER technology at least to the 2030s. * Lithuania’s revised energy policy in 2012 involves rebuilding its grid to be independent of the Russian/Belarus system and to work in with the European Network of Transmission System Operators (ENTSO) synchronous system, as well as strengthening interconnection among the three Baltic states. (If primarily for desalination this set-up is known as APVS-80.) See FNPP subsection below. This is proceeding as a high priority in nine coordinated centres, with military focus and resolve. (Kola 1&2 VVER-440 units are V-230 models which the EU has paid to shut down early in countries outside Russia. Full production and process heat supply is planned to be fully implemented by 2021. All four Balakovo units are set for a 60-year operating lifetime. It provides heat for Zarechny town as well as electricity from three 200 MWe turbine generators. Each reactor would also provide 1.05 TJ/h (9.17 PJ/yr) of district heating. First, it took over building a reactor for Iran at the Bushehr power plant, a project commenced by Siemens KWU but then aborted. A Rosenergoatom account of the safety features of the reactor is on the Nuclear Engineering International website, and Gidropress account. Seversk is the site of a major enrichment plant and former weapons facilities. In the 1970-80s OKBM undertook substantial research on high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTRs). A later version of this for export is the V-392, with enhanced safety and seismic features, as the basis of the AES-92 power plant. It shares some design features with the VK-300. The first unit is designated as a floating power unit (FPU) to take in the cogeneration aspect with 40,000 to 240,000 m3/d desalination capacity claimed, from 210 GJ/h. A Just Russia . Atomenrgopoekt Moscow is to build the plant at estimated cost of RUR 134 billion ($ 4.4 billion). In November 2019 SCC awarded a contract to Titan-2 to build the first unit. Its service lifetime is up to 60 years. Critics say that these reactors are of an "inherently unsafe design", which cannot be improved through upgrades and modernization, and some reactor parts are impossible to replace. Used fuel is stored onsite before being sent to MCC at Zheleznogorsk for longer-term storage and eventual reprocessing. At 2015 Atomexpo it was announced that at the start of the year Rosatom’s foreign portfolio of orders totaled US$ 101.4 billion, of which $66 billion was reactors, $21.8 billion was the contracted sales of EUP and SWU, and the remaining $13.6 billion was attributable to the sales of fabricated fuel assemblies and uranium. For older RBMK units, service lifetime performance recovery (LPR) operations involve correcting deformation of the graphite stack. Generally the VVER-440 units have got 15-year operating lifetime extensions. Rosatom's proposal to proceed with construction of two units was approved in November 2011. It is intended to produce electricity at RUR 0.65/kWh (US 2.23 cents/kWh). All four Leningrad units were set for a 45-year operating lifetime, though unit 1 was closed after 44 years after the first VVER-1200 came online at the same site. The region is rich in natural resources: oil and gas, coal, gold and other metals, fresh water, forests, fish and arable land. 29 September. ), In the 1990s, 5 GW of thermal power plants (mostly AST-500 integral PWR type) were planned for district and industrial heat to be constructed at Arkhangelsk (four VK-300 units commissioned to 2016), Voronezh (two AST-500 units 2012-18), Saratov, Dimitrovgrad and (small-scale, KLT-40 type PWR) at Chukoyka and Severodvinsk. New investment by 2030 of RUR 9800 billion in power plants and RUR 10,200 billion in transmission would be required. However, some may be still in trial operation and not yet licensed at this level. “In this situation … we must learn how to earn money independently,” especially in the world market. By July 2012, 30.5 GWe nuclear was projected for 2020. Federal financing and Rosatom funds of RUR 102 billion ($3.3 billion) were envisaged. Some $96 million of this was from international sources including neighbouring countries. The referendum paves the way for Russian President Vladimir Putin, who has been in power for two decades, to remain in power until 2036. In August 2015 Rosatom and Indonesia’s BATAN signed a cooperation agreement on construction of FNPPs, but nothing further has been announced. From the 1970s ther have been plans for nuclear district heating plants (AST). Economic reforms following the collapse of the Soviet Union meant an acute shortage of funds for nuclear developments, and a number of projects were stalled. It is proposed to be built at a central factory and then transported by ship, rail and road to the construction site with a high degree of modularization. Russia is one of the few countries without a populist energy policy favouring wind and solar generation; the priority is unashamedly nuclear. Alexy Lokhov, Rosatom Global Development, presented at the World Nuclear Fuel Market conference, 4-6 June 2017 In November 2013 the Regional Energy Planning Scheme included construction of two BN-1200 units by 2030, but the government decree of August 2016 specified only one there. Religious Soft Power in U.S. Foreign Policy Religion has been part of America’s soft power since the Cold War. Alstom Atomenergomash (AAEM) is a joint venture between French turbine manufacturer Alstom and Atomenergomash (AEM, an AEP subsidiary), which will produce low-speed turbine generators based on Alstom's Arabelle design, sized from 1200 to 1800 MWe. In March 2011, the State Duma’s Energy Committee recommended that the government update the general scheme of deployment of electricity generators, to have units 1 and 2 of Kursk II being commissioned in 2020 and 2023 as the lead project with VVER-TOI types, and Kursk II-1 being the reference unit for VVER-TOI. Russian cleaner sweeps to power in surprise village vote. Rosatom’s Scientific & Technical Board reviewed it along with cost estimates in August 2015. They would use pelletised MOX fuel, initially from MCC. Rostov 3&4 are effectively new V-320 units. In September 2015 the first deputy director general for operations management at Rosatom said that only when long-term electricity sales contracts are negotiated and “formalized in binding documents, i.e. Josephson, Paul R, 1999, Red Atom – Russia's nuclear Power Program from Stalin to Today The Beloyarsk 4 BN-800 fast reactor designed by OKBM Afrikantov was intended to supersede the BN-600 unit 3 at Beloyarsk, and utilise MOX fuel with both reactor-grade and weapons plutonium. In mid-2008 RAO UES was wound up, having sold off all its assets. Kursk: Having had a licence extension to 2016, Kursk 1 was the first RBMK unit to be licensed for pilot operation with 5% uprate (reported to 1020 MWe net) but units 2&4 were also operating at this level late in 2011. The V-491 provides about 1170 MWe gross, 1085 net, and the V-392M provides about 1199 MWe gross, 1114 net, both from 3200 MWt, along with about 300 MWt for district heating. Russia would contribute at least 49% of the project's $10 billion cost. Beyond these initiatives, the basic requirements for fuel have been set as: fuel operational lifetime extended to 6 years, improved burn-up of 70 GWd/tU, and improved fuel reliability. It will "contribute to the growth of the Russian economy and the expansion of Russia's presence in the global nuclear energy market," Rosatom said. During 2020, Rosenergoatom and TVEL plan to load a further 180 MOX fuel elements into the core of the BN-800, and by 2022 it will have a full MOX core, replacing the largely uranium one. In 2010, intended life extension was announced for Kola 3 (15 years). The power levels required for breaking ice up to 3 metres thick, coupled with refuelling difficulties for other types of vessels, are significant factors. See also grid implications in Electricity Transmission Grids information page. They have passive decay heat removal by air circulation. Following this it was to consider authorizing a 5% uprate for long-term operation. Originally AEM Petrozavodskmash was to produce the pressure vessel for unit 1 but this was assigned to AEM-Tekhnologii at the Atommash plant. For the VVER-1000, five years was envisaged from 2010, with enrichment levels increasing nearly by one-third (from 3.77% to 4.87%) in that time, average burn-up going up by 40% (to 57.7 GWd/t) and operating costs dropping by 5%. Joint Stock Company 'Afrikantov OKB Mechanical Engineering', RITM brochure (2018) At the end of 2016 all 11 VVER-1000 reactors were operating at 104% of original capacity. In Russia (power index 93 of max 100) leaders basically command and control and then punish or reward – the Russian president is one good example and role … Balakovo: Rostechnadzor has approved a 4% increase in power from all four Balakovo V-320 reactors and major overhauls have been undertaken from 2012. These have 40-year design life. Steam generators for unit 4 are from AEM-Tekhnologi at the Atommash plant, those for unit 3 from ZiO-Podolsk. Project financing of RUR 6.6 billion was budgeted for 2015 (including RUR 4.8 billion from the federal budget and RUR 1.8bn from other sources). Manufacturers take these small deviations into account. “Optimisation of the management system should become the main theme of 2017.”. After apparently beginning construction of the first at Sosnovy Bor, funds ran out and it disappeared from plans. Broad agreement signed, no specifics, Russia offers finance, prefers BOO. In 2006 the major aluminium producer SUAL (which in March 2007 became part of RUSAL) signed an agreement with Rosatom to support investment in new nuclear capacity at Kola, to power expanded aluminium smelting there from 2013. Beloyarsk: Beloyarsk 3 BN-600 fast neutron reactor in Zarechny municipality of Sverdlovsk region has been upgraded for a 15-year operating lifetime extension, to 2025, and is now licensed to 2025 following a five-year licence extension granted at the end of March 2020. Further Power Reactors Proposed, uncertain status. About 100 t/yr of fission product waste would go to a geological repository. Then a two-unit BN-1200 plant was included in the Regional Energy Planning Scheme in November 2013. Starting 2020-25 it is envisaged that fast neutron power reactors will play an increasing role in Russia, with substantial recycle of fuel. Fuel would be low-enriched (16.5%) uranium or MOX initially, later possibly nitride. Pashinian is widely believed to be the object of wariness in the Kremlin because he came to power through nonviolent street protests against an entrenched leadership that … They have enhanced safety including that related to earthquakes and aircraft impact with some passive safety features and double containment. The nuclear unit features small modular reactors (SMRs) technology. Planned, state loan organised for 85%, repaid over 35 years from commissioning. Export sales and prospects for Russian nuclear power plants (post-Soviet). Rosatom is reported to be developing it to a full design and bidding to build a prototype ahead of other SCWR designs in Europe, Canada, China and Japan. The plant was omitted from the January 2015 ‘roadmap’ to 2035. This proposal is taking shape as a US$ 10 billion project involving four 1000 MWe reactors and a 600,000 t/yr smelter with Atomstroyexport having a controlling share in the nuclear side. This ambition is tempered somewhat by the Muslim jihadist threat in Russian areas and, of course, the painful legacy of the war in Afghanistan. Jordan: In October 2013 ASE agreed to build two AES-92 nuclear units, while Rusatom Overseas would be strategic partner and operator of the plant, hence BOO basis. Kalinin 2 is expected to have a 30-year operating licence extension by 2025. The integral PWR was designed by OKBM and built by Atommash, with the first one installed at Gorky and ready to start up in September 1989, but never operated. The SPA Central Research Institute of Machine Engineering Technology (TsNIITMASH) in Moscow and OKB Giidropress are involved in the draft proposals. Rosenergoatom is the only Russian utility operating nuclear power plants. In May 2016 unit 3 was being prepared for operation at 107%. The BN-600 fast neutron reactor operating since 1980 has been upgraded for a 15-year operating lifetime extension, to 2025, and is licensed to 2020. This gives it better aircraft crash resistance than V-491. It is 25,800 dwt, 160 m long and 20m wide, and is designed to break through ice up to 2.8 metres thick. Further reactor details in the information paper on Fast Neutron Reactors. Turbine generators (high speed) are from Power Machines. Considerable export potential for floating nuclear power plants (FNPP), on a fully-serviced basis, has been identified. South Ural is at Ozersk, Chelyabinsk region, 140 km west of Chelyabinsk in Sverdlovsk region. In December 2013 Roesenergoatom transferred the project from Spetsstroy to Atomenergoproekt Moscow as principal contractor, while SPb AEP/VNIPIET/Atomproekt remained architect general. If BREST is successful as a 300 MWe unit, a 1200 MWe (2800 MWt) version (BREST-1200) will follow. (LMZ high-speed turbine generators had initially been approved.). In June 2018, Rosatom announced that it had signed contracts to supply four VVER-1200 reactors: two at Tianwan (7&8) and two at Xudapu (3&4). The Proryv project is carried out under FTP Nuclear Power Technologies to 2020, to create a new generation of nuclear power technologies on the basis of a closed nuclear fuel cycle using fast neutron reactors. Georgians of the Russian Orthodox faith pray in church on September 3, 2008 in Tbilisi . International Panel on Fissile Materials, Construction of Russia's BN-1200 fast-neutron reactor delayed until 2030s, 20 August 2019, © 2016-2020 World Nuclear Association, registered in England and Wales, number 01215741. It was proposed as a replacement for Novovoronezh 3&4 (in the present reactor halls), and for Kozloduy in Bulgaria. Rosenergoatom reported 209 TWh from nuclear plants in 2018. A Russian loan was to provide 85% of the finance. The second multi-track option was favoured, since it involved lower risks than the first. The LK-60 is too big for an easy operation around the oil and gas fields, so Project 10570 is under development with LK-40 intended for shallow water and the Arctic shelf. In mainly desalination mode the ABV-6M is expected to produce 55,000 m3/day of potable water by reverse osmosis. Three test assemblies of REMIX fuel were loaded into Balakovo 3 in June 2016. Rosatom was planning to build seven or eight floating nuclear power plants (FNPPs) by 2015. This is a development of the VVER-1300A, but with three loops, using steam generators and circulation pumps from it, and reactor pressure vessel and internals from VVER-1500, which it supercedes. Russian President Vladimir Putin chairs a meeting with members of the Security Council at the Kremlin in Moscow on 5 April 2019. But now, due to potential isolation of the Kaliningrad Region grid*, Rosatom “has to rebuild its project completely.” In June 2015 Latvia’s SiltumElektroProjekt LLC (SEP) won a RUR 47 million, six-month contract to do a feasibility study on connecting the Baltic plant ‘interstate’. At the same time, construction of Smolensk II would get underway, with the first VVER unit to come online by 2024 (now 2027). However, funds were not forthcoming and the economic case for completion was doubtful, so in February 2012 Rosatom abandoned the project. Unit 1 was planned to come on line in October 2016, after 55 months construction, supplying Rosenergoatom. (Major components of the two designs are the same except for slightly taller pressure vessel in AES-91, but cooling and safety systems differ. Russia's first two commercial-scale nuclear power plants started up in 1963-64, then in 1971-73 the first of today's production models were commissioned. Rosatom has formed a group of expert desalination advisors as part of a strategy to sell its thermal desalination technologies. In mid-2014 Rosenergoatom was considering a VVER-600 from Gidropress with many of the same components as the original VVER-1200, and a VBER-600 from OKBM, the latter being less developed so involving a two-year delay. Tver and Tsentral are considered alternatives in the short term. OKBM Afrikantov has developed a new compact icebreaker reactor – RITM-200 – to replace the current 171 MWt KLT 40M and OK-900A reactors. As of late 2014 Gidropress still designated the reactor unit V-491. As burn-up proceeds and fission products build up, reducing the breeding ratio, the displacers are gradually extracted, which increases the water-uranium ratio and slows the neutron spectrum to near thermal. In 2018 total electricity … Thermochemical hydrogen production from water is also envisaged. In the government decree of August 2016 a single VVER-TOI was listed for completion by 2030 at Kamskiye Polyany in Nizhnekamsk Region of Tatarstan. Rostechnadzor issued the operating licence for unit 1 in March 2016, and fuel loading commenced. In September 2006 Rosatom announced a target of nuclear providing 23% of electricity by 2020, thus commissioning two 1200 MWe plants per year from 2011 to 2014 and then three per year until 2020 – adding some 31 GWe and giving some 44 GWe of nuclear capacity in 2020. Petrozavodskmash makes steam generators and had the contract for RPV and various internals for the (now abandoned) Baltic 1 reactor. It was planned to develop it as a land-based unit with Kazatomprom, with a view to exports, and the first unit was to be built at Aktau in Kazakhstan. Unit 1 was finally shut down in December 2018, followed by unit 2 in November 2020. UES was reported to support construction of new nuclear plants in the regions of Yaroslavl, Chelyabinsk (South Urals) and Vladimir, with two to four units at each. In the V-392M there is a focus placed on avoidance of redundancy, aiming at higher cost-effectiveness of the plant construction and operation. Operational lifetime is 40 years. It is a three-loop pool type reactor of 1470 MWt, 600 MWe gross and 560 MWe net. Unit 1 was initially expected to be commissioned in 2015, with unit 2 following a year later, at a total cost of US$ 5 billion for 2228 MWe net (1114 MWe net each). Rosatom had said in February 2012 that it did not believe that SPb AEP should perform the full range of design, construction and equipment supply roles. Russia is one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy. Kalinin 2&3 have been approved for a 4% increase in power and are operating at this level on a pilot commercial basis since 2012. Fast reactors represent a technological advantage for Russia. A high-level agreement was signed in October 2009, then another in November 2012, and an intergovernmental agreement relating to them was expected in 2012, but was still pending in 2015, and the project was reported to be suspended indefinitely. Kursk 5 – an upgraded RBMK design – was more than 70% built before the project was terminated. Total project cost was estimated at $6.6 billion. This first (and probably only Russian) BN-800 unit first started up in June 2014, with first power to the turbine in November 2015. By the mid-1980s Russia had 25 power reactors in operation, but the nuclear industry was beset by problems. Also the main Russian nuclear plants were expected to provide 30.8 PJ cogeneration district heating by about 2010. About 2005 Rosatom (the Federal Atomic Energy Agency) promoted the basic design for VVER-1500 pressurised water reactors by Gidropress as a priority. If revived, it will be a Generation III+ model meeting EUR criteria. The latest FTP envisages a 25-30% nuclear share in electricity supply by 2030, 45-50% in 2050 and 70-80% by end of century. Rosenergoatom set up a subsidiary: JSC Baltic NPP to build and commission the plant. Most reactors are being licensed for lifetime extension. Following significant design modifications made after the Chernobyl accident, as well as extensive refurbishment including replacement of fuel channels, a 45-year lifetime is seen as realistic for most of the 1000 MWe units. In 2007 a memorandum of understanding was signed to build four more VVER units at Kudankulam, and this has now become about ten units including VVER-1200 types at more than one site. This will be its first foreign plant on that BOO basis. And its abandonment left a likely base-load shortfall for UES in Central Russia marketing the... Vber-500 design was presented at a cost of RUR 37 billion Unified system... Those deferred but following Rosatom 's R & D section in the Revolution. 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